SCHEME AND DEVICE FOR MACHINE FOR MANUFACTURING NAILS FROM WIRE
The operating principle of the impact machine for the serial production of wire nails of various sizes is very simple and understandable. Therefore, it’s not at all difficult to master the machine. It does not require high qualifications for its configuration and maintenance. Therefore, this type of equipment can be safely purchased in used condition, then its price starts at $ 2800. Starting at this price, you can purchase machines for making nails from wire with a diameter of up to 4 mm and a length of up to 120 mm. Serial production of nails on your own machine is a stable source of income in the garage or in the home.
SCHEME OF NAIL MACHINE WITH DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF ACTION
scheme of the machine for the manufacture of nails.
Schematic illustration of the device of the percussion apparatus.
Wire nails are produced on percussion and pressing machines. The most common impact machines, forming a nail by a blow with two hammers.
The wire is passed between two rows of rollers a, a. Then it falls into the feeder A (formed by the dog b and the spring c pressing it), which vibrates with an amplitude equal to the length of the nail with a margin for forming the hat. To increase / decrease the amplitude, use the finger of the crank e. The feeder is driven by the crank e, thrust d, and the lever system g.
Having passed the feeder, the wire runs between the clamping jaws w, w ’, moreover, w is static, and the down force of the lever z, moved by the figured washer k, acts on the w’ (figure 14).
Graph of angles and revolutions.
The cheeks are equipped with serrated grooves that allow the wire to be fixed when the head is riveted. Also in the cheeks there is a shape corresponding to the geometry of the bottom of the cap.
Behind the cheeks are knives p, p ’, respectively moved by the levers o, o’, which are set in motion by the washers c and c ’, on the outer surface of which the figured grooves are cut (figure 14).
The knives have a pyramidal shape (figure 16). Cutout a is used for pressing the sharp end, blades b – cut off excess. The remaining “petals” are removed during polishing.
Avoid the rapid blunting of knives allows a design feature in which the knives barely touch each other. This design does not allow to completely cut off the nail. The final separation of the product from the wire occurs with the help of the ejector m, the movement of which is reported by the levers y and the rod f, driven by the cam x.
A spring of n, n’’s striking the protrusion of the hammer, giving him an impulse. The hammer strikes the nail, forming a hat. The wooden spring (steel in some machines) is compressed with the help of a cam m. (Figure 15, curve D).
The graph (figure 15) shows the order of individual working strokes of the machine for the production of nails. Feeder who feeds the wire forward corresponds to curve A.
The strokes of the cheeks holding the wire are described by curve B (when the feeder moves the wire in the opposite direction, the cheeks do not fix it).
The working stroke of the scissors from the moment of fixing the wire is described by curve G.
The operation of the ejector separating the finished product is shown by curve B.
The hammer operation sequence is visible on curve D.
Then the feeder occupies the extreme working point, the cheeks open, the working cycle starts from the beginning (curve B).
The difference between nominal and real performance is about 20-40%. The reason for this is downtime caused by replacing and installing tools, refueling machines with new circles of wire, scrap, etc. In the manufacture of nails, from 2.5% to 3.5% of the material is lost on the “petals”. Losses on marriage reach 1%.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PRESSING MACHINE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NAILS
scheme of the press machine.
Pressing machines have higher productivity, but require frequent replacement of dies and cheeks. High loads on the forming elements of the machines lead to their rapid wear.
Pressing machines are similarly arranged, but instead of a hammer, a stamp is installed in them that forms the head of the nail with gradual pressure. The stamp is driven by a curly washer or eccentric. In the opposite direction, the wire is forcibly fed (unlike percussion machines, where it occurs under the action of a spring). This design increases productivity by almost 2 times. In pressing machines, industrial wastes account for about 3% of the weight of the used wire. These are “petals” and marriage.
INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURE OF WIRE Nails IN HOME
Types of nails.
Ordinary nails are made from unfired wire. The material is cast iron with the characteristics:
P 0.02 – 0.06%;
tensile strength with elongation of not more than 28%, 45-50 kg / mm2, obtained by the Thomas process.
Serrated nails are made from wire, which is annealed after drawing, subjected to pickling with dilute sulfuric acid, followed by quenching with milk of lime and drying. Then they stretch and straighten on wooden cheeks.